Currently we offer two versions of the Onethinx Core module: 868 MHz and 915 Mhz version. Currently, we do not offer a 433 MHz version.
LoRaWAN operates in unlicensed radio spectrum. This means that anyone can use the radio frequencies without having to pay million dollar fees for transmission rights. It is similar to WiFi, which uses the 2.4GHz and 5GHz ISM bands worldwide. Anyone is allowed to set up WiFi routers and transmit WiFi signals without the need for a license or permit.
LoRaWAN uses lower radio frequencies with a longer range. The fact that frequencies have a longer range also comes with more restrictions that are often country-specific. This poses a challenge for LoRaWAN, that tries to be as uniform as possible in all different regions of the world. As a result, LoRaWAN is specified for a number of bands for these regions. These bands are similar enough to support a region-agnostic protocol, but have a number of consequences for the implementation of the backend systems.
In Europe, LoRaWAN operates in the 863-870 MHz frequency band. European frequency regulations impose specific duty-cycles on devices for each sub-band. These apply to each device that transmits on a certain frequency, so both gateways and devices have to respect these duty-cycles. Most channels used by LoRaWAN have a duty-cycle as low as 1% or even 0.1%. As a result, the network should be smart in scheduling messages on gateways that are less busy or on channels that have a higher duty-cycle. Application developers are encouraged to keep their payloads small, do not transmit too often and avoid downlink messages if possible.
In the United States, LoRaWAN operates in the 902-928 MHz frequency band. Unlike the European band, the US band has dedicated uplink and downlink channels. The band is divided into 8 sub-bands that each have 8x125 kHz uplink channels, 1x500 kHz uplink channel and 1x500 kHz downlink channel. The Things Network uses the second sub-band (number 1 if you start counting at 0).
The specification of the Australian 915-928 MHz band is practically the same as the US 902-928 MHz, except that its uplink frequencies are on higher frequencies than in the US band. Its downlink channels are the same as in the US 902-928 MHz band. The Things Network uses the second sub-band (number 1 if you start counting at 0).
The Chinese 779-787 MHz band behaves similar to the European bands. The 779-787 MHz band also has three common 125 kHz channels (779.5, 779.7 and 779.9 MHz). The Chinese 470-510 MHz band behaves similar to the US bands. There are 96 uplink channels and 48 downlink channels. In some regions, a subset of these channels is used by China Electric Power and can therefore not be used for LoRaWAN. The Things Network uses the eleventh sub-band (number 10 if you start counting at 0).